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RA: 23h 57m 49.7s
Dec: −32° 35′ 30″
Ch: MSA:1399, U2:350, SA:23
Type: galaxy, Sd
Mag: B=9.7, V=9.11
Size: 9.772′ x 6.165′
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This spiral galaxy in Sculptor was discovered by G.P. Bond in 1850 at Harvard College Observatory.
The NGC description reads: "Like a comet".
Table IV: vF, E, stell.N., * inv. in circular neb., with neb. dots.
! vF, 6'x4', open spiral, knotty and complex.
Shapley, H. & Ames, A. (1932) A survey of the external galaxies brighter than the thirteenth magnitude. Annals Harvard College Obs., 88(2), 43.
Position given in NGC corrected by that published by Reinmuth's Die Herschel Nebel.
F, 6'x5'. open spiral, with a B sharp stellar N., very many condensations and patches, see HOB 15.
Shapley, H. & Mohr, J. (1938) Photometry of stars and clusters in the southern spiral NGC 7793. Harvard Obs. Bull., No.907, 6-12.
Galactic and Extragalactic Studies, III. Photographs of thirty southern nebulae and clusters. Proc. N.A.S., 26, 31-36.
"Survey of bright galaxies south of -35° declination", Mem. Mount Stromlo, No. 13. (photographic study, plates taken with the 30-inch Reynolds reflector, 20-inch diaphragm).
"A Nearby Cluster of Galaxies", Observatory, 83, December 1963, 257) derives the distance to the cluster as 2.0 Mpc, only about three times the distance to M31. Galaxies listed are NGC 45, 55, 247, 253, 300, 7793.
(Sulentic and Tifft 1973) notes that this is a 10.0 mag galaxy. Their coded description reads LG,B,IRRR,VDIFSSTR) COMPLEX DIFPCHYSTR,ELCOM NP.
Sandage, A. & Tammann, G. A. (1975) Steps toward the Hubble constant. V - The Hubble constant from nearby galaxies and the regularity of the local velocity field. ApJ, 196, 313-328. [1975ApJ...196..313S]
Includes this galaxy in the South Polar Group. Members include NGC 24, NGC 45, NGC 55, NGC 247, NGC 253, NGC 300 & NGC 7793.
de Vaucouleurs, G. (1975) Nearby groups of galaxies. In: Kuiper, G. (ed) Stars and Stellar Systems. Volume 9: Galaxies and the Universe. Chapter 14, p557.
[Sculptor Group is the] nearest of all nearby groups [and] is a loose association of six or seven late-type spirals Sc to Sm (NGC 45, 55, 247, 253, 300, 7793, and perhaps IC 5332)…
Green, M. R. & Dixon, K. L. (1978) "Photoelectric photometry of bright southern galaxies", Vol 98, August, p 167-169. They find the V magnitude through a 28'' aperture = 12.86, and through a 80'' aperture = 11.24.
Schmidt K.-H., Priebe A. & Boller T. (1993) Nearby galaxies. Revised machine-readable version of the catalogue. Astron. Nachr., 314, 371. [1993AN....314..371S]
Other names: "E349-12". Inclination: (face-on, in degrees) 45 Total photoelectric blue mag 9.63 Logarithm of the angular diameter D25 (arcminutes) 1.97 Blue photographic magnitude 9.63 This galaxy is included in a sample of galaxies with velocity less than 500km/s with respect to the centroid of the Local Group. [Nearby Galaxies. Schmidt K.-H., Priebe A., Boller T. (Astron. Nachr. 314, 371 (1993))]
by Jim Lucyk: Sky&Tel. 11/81 p408, Rev.Shapley-Ames Cat.of Bright Gal. (Sandage,Tammann 1981) p111.
Houston notes this bright open spiral has an estimated visual mag of 9.
Its cometary appearance led to its inclusion in Jack Bennett's catalogue of "Comet-like Objects South of the Celestial Equator" where it was included as No. 130. His coded description describes it as an extended object, very faint, easily missed. Yet its catalogued magnitude is 9.6, and it spans 8' x 5' along PA 98.
Sanford writes: "It is a member of the South Galactic Pole group of galaxies, which includes NGC 45, NGC 55, NGC 247, NGC 253, NGC 300, and NGC 7793. This loose grouping has been characterized as the nearest group of galaxies there is beyond the Local Group, which is centred on our Milky Way Galaxy."
Tom Lorenzin, in the e-version of "1000+ The Amateur Astronomers' Field Guide to Deep Sky Observing", notes: "9.7M; 6' x 4' extent; fairly large and bright, NE-SW-oriented ellipse with bright stellar core; quite a pretty sight! !good supernova prospect!."
Steve Coe, observing with a 17.5" f/4.5 at 100X, notes: "Pretty bright, large, round, bright middle at 100X. At 165X, there are two brighter shells which surround the core. The stellar core and concentric shells around it were only seen on the best of nights.
15cm - lg vbr gx @ 80x. 140x: 8'x5' in pa110, min axis extending 0'.3 past V=12.3 * (T&B) on N. pa def not pa83 as per DSFG (Corwin N/S flip?). wk even concen, vsmooth texture, except 30" circ core has mod even concen to f *ar nuc. BS, 15Nov1993, LCO.
The galaxy could not be found with a 2-inch refractor.
1997 October 27: Jonkershoek, seeing 3, transparency 3, sky darkness 4, lim.mag. at south pole 6.0 (naked eye), 10.7 (binoculars). 11x80 tripod-mounted. "Distinct, round nebulous patch, light evenly distributed, no nucleus but rather broad centred. Reasonably easy to spot."
16-inch f/10 SCT
Rather large, bright round & dusty glow appears almost transparent and melting into the background. Lovely string of five stars curling outwards from the north just outside the galaxy swinging towards the west. It appears as if the galaxy's outer edge spreads out into the field of view.
16-inch f/10 SCT (127x, 290x, 463x)
Lovely large oval galaxy overwhelm the star field. With higher power 290x the surface show texture, brightens up in pieces with averted vision. It been define in layers and the southern side is slightly more hazy and flimsy. Few faint stars on the northern edge.
Sky Conditions:The fainter parts of the Milky Way are barely visible.Haziness only visible on the horizon.Atmosphere stable with little interference.
This diffuse galaxy has a slight irregular oval shape whereby I have noticed that the edges of this galaxy are very fuzzy and that this galaxy is seen as a vague smudge of light.Around the outskirts of this galaxy darker areas are noticeable.This galaxy measures 7.1'x 5'.
Instrument:12-inch Dobsonian Reflector Telescope.
Sky Conditions:The fainter parts of the Milky Way are barely visible.
Transparency of the Sky:Haziness only visible on the horizon.
Seeing:Atmosphere stable with little interference.
First Impression:This object looks like a galaxy.
Chart Number:No.19(Extract taken out of "Atlas of the Night Sky").
Overall Shape:It is a spiral galaxy.No spiral-like structure is seen in this galaxy.It is well observed as a large faint smudge of light.
Brightness Profile:The nucleus of this galaxy is brighter than the central outskirts of this galaxy.
Challenge Rating: Easy to observe in a 12 to 16-inch telescope under dark skies.
What does the galactic nucleus look like? This galaxy is oval and well defined.The nucleus is strongly condensed of faint stars.The stars in the nucleus of this galaxy are unresolved.
Any stars very near or within the the galaxy? Yes, there are a few 7th to 8th magnitude stars.
Are there darker areas within this galaxy? No.
Are there areas of uneven brightness? No,areas of uneven brightness are discerned.
The Messier objects
The Bennett objects
The Caldwell list
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