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NGC 4438 (9,525 of 18,816)


oc gc pln bn dn gx gxcl ast aka lost




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The Eyes (NGC 4438)

NGC 4438, Arp 120, LEDA 40914, MCG+02-32-065, UGC 7574, VV 188, Markarian Chain, The Eyes (NGC 4438), I 28, 2, h 1275, GC 2994

RA: 12h 27m 45.91s
Dec: +13° 00′ 32.3″

Con: Virgo
Ch: MSA:725, U2:193, SA:13


(reference key)

Type: galaxy (AGN LINER-type), Sb

Mag: B=12, V=?

Size: 8.912′ x 3.89′
PA: 27°

History and Accurate Positions for the NGC/IC Objects (Corwin 2004)

NGC 4438. See NGC 4443.

Historical observations

William Herschel

Discovered in 1784 by William Herschel with an 18.7-inch f/13 speculum telescope. He called it "One of two, at 4 or 5' distant. Bright, considerably large." A note reads: "Near the 84 and 86 neb. of the Connoissance des Temps." The other object is NGC 4435.

Published comments

Arp (1966)

Listed as No. 120b in Arp's "Atlas of Peculiar Galaxies" (Astrophysical Journal Supplement, vol. 14, 1966.) He remarks "eastern galaxy breaking up a spiral."

Sulentic & Tifft (1973)

The RNGC (Sulentic and Tifft 1973) notes that this is a 11.0 mag galaxy. Their coded description reads SLEL,LBM,HISB, LGDIF FIL NF &SP.

Markarian (1961)

Markarian (1961, Astronomical Journal, Volume 66, p555-557) suggests that this galaxy is part of a slightly bent physical chain of galaxies extending over about 1.5 degrees in the Virgo cluster. The eight galaxies forming this chain are NGC 4374, NGC 4406, NGC 4435, NGC 4438, NGC 4458, NGC 4461, NGC 4473 & NGC 4477. Markarian reaches the conclusion, based on a probabilistic argument, that "the chain of galaxies in the Virgo cluster is not a chance grouping but a real physical system."

Modern observations

AJ Crayon

AJ Crayon, using an 8" f/6 Newtonian, notes: "is a spiral galaxy. At 80X it is 4'X2' 11m, in postion angle east of northeast."

Steve Coe

Steve Coe, observing with a 13" f/5.6, notes: "bright, pretty large, very much elongated, much brighter in the middle. 4438 and 4435 are elongated in the same PA."

Contemporary observations

Tom Bryant

2008-05-04 22:30:00

Observing site: Pinnacles overlook

Telescope: C-8

[12h 27m 48s, 13 1m 0s] An Sa peculiar, with a diaphanous outer envelope. The envelope wasn't seen, and it looks like a bright, small elliptical. Forms a pair with NGC 4435.

2008-05-04 22:30:00

Observing site: Pinnacles overlook

Telescope: C-8

[12h 27m 48s, 13 1m 0s] A faint, large, edge on spiral.

Richard Ford

2013 March 10th, Sunday



Sky Conditions:The fainter parts of the Milky Way are barely visible.Haziness only visible on the horizon.Atmosphere stable with little interference.

Instrument:12-inch Dobsonian.

This galaxy's extensions are plainly visible at both 57x and 75x and that this galaxy has an elongated appearance which rather has a moderately bright structure of pale whitish light that is somewhat defocused as an out of focus smudge of light which is seen at 75x.This galaxy measures 3.8'x 3.1'with P.A:NNE/SSW.

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