sponsored by psychohistorian.org

DOCdb

Deep Sky Observer's Companion – the online database

 

Welcome, guest!

If you've already registered, please log in,

or register an observer profile for added functionality.

List:

log in to manage your observing lists

 browse:

 

 position:

 

 next:

 

 options:

summary

rename

prune

trim

remove

close

copy

combine

plan

bookmark

load

new

delete

marathon

favourite!

Full database:

Entire DOCdb database of 18,816 objects.

 browse:

 position:

NGC 4321 (9,251 of 18,816)

 next:

oc gc pln bn dn gx gxcl ast aka lost

Object:

list

bookmark

finder chart

altitude today

altitude (year)

 search:

½°, , in DOCdb


Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/yivumoo/public_html/show_object.php on line 167

show browsing

Messier 100

NGC 4321, LEDA 40153, MCG+03-32-015, UGC 7450, Messier 100, h 1211, GC 2890

RA: 12h 22m 54.95s
Dec: +15° 49′ 19.5″

Con: Coma Berenices
Ch: MSA:701, U2:193, SA:13

Ref: SIMBAD

(reference key)

Type: galaxy (AGN), Sc

Mag: B=10.6, V=?

Size: 7.585′ x 6.165′
PA: 30°

History and Accurate Positions for the NGC/IC Objects (Corwin 2004)

NGC 4321. See NGC 4322, NGC 4323, and NGC 4327.

Historical observations

William Herschel (c.1784)

In the Philosophical Transactions, 1814, William Herschel described it as "a nebula of about 10' in diameter, but there is in the middle of it, a small, bright cluster of supposed stars."

Lassell, W. (1866)

Bibcode: [1866MmRAS..36....1L]

Sketched and described.

Published comments

Supernovae

Four supernovae erupted in this galaxy; 1901 (12.1p), 1914 (14.0p), 1959 (17.5p), 1979 (11.0v)

Sulentic & Tifft (1973)

(Sulentic and Tifft 1973) notes that this is a 10.5 mag galaxy. Their coded description reads SC,B,SC,2BWDKNY ARMS.

Sandage, A. et al. (1975) Galaxies and the Universe

G. de Vaucouleurs ("Galaxies and the Universe", Chapter 14 - Nearby Groups of Galaxies) notes that the five brightest members of the Virgo I (S) group are NGC 4321, NGC 4501, NGC 4254, NGC 4569 & NGC 4579.

Sandage, A. (1961) The Hubble Atlas of Galaxies

This galaxy appears on page 28 of "The Hubble Atlas of Galaxies" by Allan Sandage (1961, Washington, DC).

Bailey, S.I. (1908)

"nebula, B nucleus, spiral?"

Bailey, S.I. (1908) A catalogue of bright stars and nebulae. Ann.Harv.Coll.Obs., 60(8), 199.

Remarks, p.217: "the spiral structure of this nebula is not well shown on A1875 having an exposure of 62 minutes."

Modern observations

Hartung, E.J. (1968) Astron.Obj.South.Tel

Notes that this "is a large diffuse luminous haze about 4' across, rising broadly and then suddenly to a small bright nucleus with no visible structure." He notes that from his location, M100 culminates at 35 deg, and adds: "I see them very easily with 10.5cm."

Walter Scott Houston

In 1972 Houston wrote: "Looking at a galaxy, one sometimes gets the feeling that a little more aperture would show the stars. Such a case is the 10th mag broadside system M100, which is about 5' in diameter." Working with his 6-inch refractor and noting that this object brightened from attenuated edges towards the centre, Smyth declared that M100 'is therefore proved to be globular.' But with Lord Rosse's 6-foot mirror no stars were seen, and M100 was characterized with one word: 'Spiral'."

Sanford (1989) Observing the Constellations

Notes that it "has been called the brightest galaxy in the Virgo Cluster. It appears as a large haze 6.9' x 6.2' across. In 4-inch or larger aperture telescopes, two major arms are seen wrapped around the nucleus. M 100 has produced several supernovae, with such events taking place in 1901, 1914, 1959 and 1984. A typical supernova at this distance reaches about 12th magnitude, easily seen in 8-inch or larger aperture telescopes."

Tom Lorenzin

Lorenzin, in the electronic version of "1000+ The Amateur Astronomers' Field Guide to Deep Sky Observing", notes: "10M; 7' x 6' extent; soft, round, mottled glow with distinct central condensation; two 14M stars 1' each to SW and ESE; see photos at HAG-28-31; faint SP GAL N4312 (12.5M; 2.6' x 1.6' extent) is a very gentle spindle 17' to SSW just past 10M star."

Brian Skiff

= M100

UGC: pa30.

33cm plate: * 2'.7 SE. br patch NW is sector of spir arm.

UBV for fld *s in PASP 93,36.

T&B: * NW V=13.0.

6cm - nice, smoothlu textured w/little concen except for a f non*ar nuc. elong in pa110, 4'x3' overall.

7cm - br, mod lg @ 30x. 50x: sl oval, elong ~E-W, halo reaches 2/3 distance to m13 * off NW side. mod broad concen to sm brtr core w/o sharp nuc. BS, 15Apr1993, Anderson Mesa.

13cm - vbr oval elong ESE-WNW. uniformly br halo and vsm much brtr core. BS, 7Feb1984, USNO.

15cm - 5' diam, broad, rising gradually to a sm brtr core. at times the neb is gran. some f *s on E side.

25cm - 5'x4', elong SE-NW. br core. muich of area seems curdled and mottled. sev *s noted in neb.

30cm - 149x: pretty f, elong pa120, 3'x1'. 238x: 4'.5x3' in pa120. not well concen but w/sm br 20" core. core is contrarily oriented in pa60, with little wings on NE & SW. sev *s assoc just in edge of extensive uneven halo. sketch in notes.

- 5'x4' in pa115. m13 * on SE edge. core seems vsl oval in pa80, no nuc evident. consp br patch nr uoter edge of halo NW of center. a few other br & dk spots/*ings and a couple of *s over gx. BS, 7Feb1984, USNO.

Contemporary observations

Magda Streicher

(no date)

Alldays (22.50S, 20.12E, 770m).

12-inch f/10 SCT (218x)

This is a pretty large Coma galaxy member, which show off as a large glow. HP show hints of wheel structure which I suspect with averted vision. 16" show two sweeping irregularities extending from core. Sharp small star like nucleus, very hazy on the edges. Will go back and made a sketch.

Tom Bryant

2007-03-18 10:30:00

Observing site: Pinnacles overlook

Telescope: C-8

[12h 22m 54s, 15 49m 0s] An almost face on Sc. It has a bright nucleus, and a fainter, uniform disk, with the 24.5mm Ultrawide.

Richard Ford

2012 March 23rd, Fri

Location:Perdeberg.

Time:11:30pm.

Sky Conditions:The fainter parts of the Milky Way are barely visible.Haziness only visible on the horizon.Atmosphere stable with little interference.

Instrument:12-inch Dobsonian.

This galaxy has a circular shape with prominent spiral arms which are clearly observed with a brilliant oval nucleus strongly condensed.This galaxy measures 8.2'* 2.7'.The central nucleus of this galaxy grows brighter compared to the far outskirts of this galaxy.

Favourite lists

Lacaille's catalogue

The Messier objects

Dunlop's catalogue

The Bennett objects

The Caldwell list

Named DSOs

Object search

First search phrase

    and

Second search phrase

Type of object to include:

open cluster
globular cluster
planetary nebula
bright nebula
dark nebula
galaxy
galaxy cluster
asterism & stars
unverified/lost
nova

The Bug Report

DOCdb is still in beta-release.

Known issues, feature requests, and updates on bug fixes, are here:

> Bug Report

Feedback

Found a bug? Have a comment or suggestion to improve DOCdb? Please let us know!

> Contact us

Help!

DOCdb is a free online resource that exists to promote deep sky observing.

You could help by sharing your observations, writing an article, digitizing and proof-reading historical material, and more.

> Find out more

Everything on DOCdb.net is © 2004-2010 by Auke Slotegraaf, unless stated otherwise or if you can prove you have divine permission to use it. Before using material published here, please consult the Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial-Share Alike 2.5 License. Some material on DOCdb is copyright the individual authors. If in doubt, don't reproduce. And that goes for having children, too. Please note that the recommended browser for DOCdb is Firefox 3.x. You may also get good results with K-Meleon. Good luck if you're using IE. A successful experience with other browsers, including Opera and Safari, may vary.