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NGC 1365 (2,500 of 18,816)

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The Fornax Propeller

NGC 1365, Dunlop 562, AGC 22699, ESO 358-17, LEDA 13179, MCG-06-08-026, SGC 033141-3618.4, VV 825, Bennett 16, Fornax Propeller, h 2552, GC 731

RA: 03h 33m 36.31s
Dec: −36° 08′ 27.8″

Con: Fornax
Ch: MSA:401, U2:355, SA:18

Ref: SIMBAD

(reference key)

Type: galaxy (Seyfert 1), SBbc

Mag: B=10.32, V=9.52

Size: 10.96′ x 6.606′
PA: 32°

Image gallery

Sketches  (1)

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Photos  (3)

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Remarks

Cozens, Walsh & Orchiston [2010JAHH...13...59C] note that Dunlop 562 = NGC 1365. Other references state Dunlop 562 = NGC 1436.

When the position quoted in the NGC is updated with the RA value given in Dunlop's notes, it falls within 8' of the position of NGC 1365.

Historical observations

James Dunlop

Discovered by James Dunlop from Pramatta, Australia, 1826 September 02. Listed as No. 562 of his catalogue.

"A pretty large faint round nebula, about 3.5' diameter, gradual slight condensation to the centre, very faint at the margin. (2 observations)"

John Herschel

John Herschel sketched it and recorded it as "A very remarkable nebula. A decided link between the nebula M 51 and M 27. Centre very bright; somewhat extended; gradually very much brighter to the middle; a 13th magnitude star near the edge of the halo involved. The area of the halo very faint; general position of the longer axis 20.8 degrees. whole breadth = 3'. See Pl. IV. fig. 1." (Sweep 801, 1837 Nov 28)

His second record reads: "very bright, extended, resolvable nucleus; or has 2 or 3 stars involved; the preceding Arc is the brighter. I think the oval is in some degree filled up to the south." (Sweep 802, 1837 Nov 29)

Published comments

Stewart (1908) Ann.Harv.Coll.Obs., 60 (6)

Table IV: ! open, 2-br sp., double nucleus.

Helwan Obs. Bulletin No 9 (1912)

! pB, 7'x4', curious two-branched spiral with either two elongated nuclei or a very bright condensed centre with a dark ray across it."

Laustsen, S., Madsen, C. & West, R.M. (1987)

Exploring the Southern Sky: A pictorial atlas from the European Southern Observatory. Springer-Verlag.

Scanned image on disk. [1987EtSS.........0L], plate 4.

de Vaucouleurs, G. (1956)

De Vaucouleurs (1956) "Survey of bright galaxies south of -35 declination", Mem. Mount Stromlo, No. 13. On photos taken with the 30-inch Reynolds reflector, 20-inch diaphragm: bright inner part 10.8' x 4', faint outer regions 11.4' x 6.6'. Remarks: very remarkable BN with dark lane, knots in arms

Supernovae

Two supernovae erupted in this galaxy; 1957 (16.5p), 1983 (13.5v).

Sandage, A. et al. (1975) Galaxies and the Universe

G. de Vaucouleurs ("Galaxies and the Universe", Chapter 14 - Nearby Groups of Galaxies) notes that the five brightest members of the Fornax I Group are NGC 1399, NGC 1380, NGC 1404, NGC 1326 & NGC 1350. He notes that NGC 1316 and NGC 1365 are possibly in the foreground.

Cozens, Walsh & Orchiston (2010)

James Dunlop's Historical Catalogue of Southern Nebulae and Clusters

Cozens et al. report a 10 minute error in the RA as printed in the catalogue. See Table 4: Some copy errors in Dunlop's published catalogue.

Ref: [2010JAHH...13...59C]

Sulentic & Tifft (1973)

The RNGC (Sulentic and Tifft 1973) notes that this is a 10.5 mag galaxy. Their coded description reads SB,LG,B,WD,OKNARMS DKLNS NR NUC.

de Vaucouleurs, G. (1975) Fornax I Cluster

de Vaucouleurs, G. (1975) Nearby groups of galaxies. In: Kuiper, G. (ed) Stars and Stellar Systems. Volume 9: Galaxies and the Universe. Chapter 14, p557.

NGC 1316 and NGC 1365 possibly foreground?

Brightest members: NGC 1399 ( B(0) = 11.15), NGC 1380 ( B(0) = 11.30), NGC 1404 ( B(0) = 11.34), NGC 1326 ( B(0) = 11.75), NGC 1350 ( B(0) = 11.80).

Photo index

Photo Index by Jim Lucyk: Sky&Tel. 2/77 p102, Sky&Tel. 5/88 p474, Sky&Tel. 1/88 p110, Astronomy mag. 3/84 p62, Burnhams V1 p94, Burnhams V2 p900, Ast.Obj.for South.Tel. (Hartung, 1984).

Modern observations

Walter Scott Houston

Houston calls this galaxy the "highlight of . . a delightful group of more than a dozen galaxies . . this galaxy is a 9th magnitude barred spiral that spans 8'x3'. It was very conspicuous on my 4-inch."

Clarke, W.P. (1993)

William P. Clarke (San Diego, California, USA) writes in The Webb Society Nebulae and Clusters Section Report No. 11, January 1993: "Excellent barred spiral. Bright nucleus and bar with fainter spiral arms attached. Bar extended E-W with one arm extending north from the west end of the bar and the other arm extending south from the east end of the bar. Faint star involved N.p. the nucleus. (17.5-inch Newtonian, x83)"

Tom Lorenzin

Tom Lorenzin, in the electronic version of "1000+ The Amateur Astronomers' Field Guide to Deep Sky Observing", notes: "11.2M; 8'x 3.5' extent; elongated with bright nucleus; barred spiral with trailing arms to NW and SE; 13M star 2' NW of core; about 1 degree to NE is a crowd of faint GALs including N1404, N1399 and N1380."

Clark, R.N. (1990)

See also "Visual Astronomy of the Deep Sky" by Roger N. Clark (1990, Sky Publishing Corporation) page 87.

Hartung, E.J. (1968) Astron.Obj.South.Tel

Hartung notes that "this barred spiral is the best object of its type for the southern observer. Photos disclose very well-marked bar features in an elliptical system 6.8' x 3.2' which 30cm shows as a bright round diffuse centre across which is a broad faint bar about 3' long in pa 70 deg. From the ends of this come streams of faint nebulosity, from the preceding end in pa 20 deg and from the following end in pa 200 deg, so that the general shape is that of a large open imperfect ellipse with dark areas on either side of the bar. Smaller apertures show correspondingly less but 15cm indicates the bright central region clearly."

AJ Crayon

AJ Crayon, using an 8" f/6 Newtonian, notes: "is a another barred spiral galaxy. At 100x is 5'x2' 11m has a suddenly much brighter large middle of 2'x1' which is south of center and has three 13m stars nearby."

Steve Coe

Steve Coe, observing with a 13" f/5.6, notes: "Pretty bright, pretty large, bright nucleus at 165X. There is bar structure seen with averted vision. Two spiral arms are dim but visible in good seeing on a fair night with the 17.5". Going to the 13" on a night I rated 7/10 for seeing and transparency there is more detail visible. The galaxy is bright, large, elongated in PA 0, much brighter middle at 135X. The barred spiral structure is obvious and there is a 12th mag star involved in the northern arm about 1' north of the nucleus."

Steve Gottlieb

03 33.6 -36 08

13: bright, elongated core, large, 3' diameter, very diffuse outer halo.

8: fairly bright, fairly large, bright core, diffuse halo, broad concentration.

Southern galaxies from Australia

[amastro] posting, Apr 30, 2008

03 33 35.9 -36 08 24

V = 9.6; Size 11.2x6.2; Surf Br = 14.1; PA = 32d

24" (4/5/08): this is the best visual barred spiral in the sky and although it was only at 33 elevation (well past the meridian), the view was stunning at 200x with its long sweeping arms making a slashing cosmic "Z" in the eyepiece. I was also surprised by the structure in the fairly small, extremely bright core that is embedded in the 3' E-W bar. On the north edge of the mottled core, a very short, hooking appendage extended towards the NE with a fainter counterpart on the SW end. This gave the small core the appearance of a tiny barred spiral! At the west end of the bar a bright arm emerges, dramatically sweeping back to the NNE (sharp 110 angle) beyond a mag 12.5 star that is situated near the 1/3 mark of its total length. The counterpart on the east end of the bar shoots to the SW, reaching a faint star at its end. The total distance between the tips of the arms is roughly 10'.

Brian Skiff

Lick: bar in pa90.

33cm plate: * NW 1'.3.

15cm - beautiful barred spir @ 80x! 140x: circ 40" core has strong even concen to f *ar nuc. this lies in rel uniformly-br E-W bar. Nrn arm arcs NNE from W end passing W of V=13.6 * (T&B). Srn arm goes S then W from E end of bar. it has br spot (T&B: a star) due S of bar-end, then ends SSW of center S of m14.5 *. halo extends W to nrst of triangle of m14 *s there. dim patches N & S of bar. BS, 17Nov1993, LCO.

25cm - fairly consp @ lox. lg circ haze 3' diam, quite f. core 20"-30" across also circ, almost uniform in brtness (profile like a smooth lump). m13.5 * on NW side. vf band comes up from W side of core to *, another from E side south. no *ar nuc. not a great object. BS, 25Jan1982, Anderson Mesa.

Bill Ferris

Gyulbudaghian's Nebula and other Deep Sky Treats

[amastro] posting, Tue Nov 8, 2005 4:37 pm

Anderson Mesa

NGC 1365 must be a truly spectacular site from the Southern Hemisphere. Even from Flagstaff, where this galaxy rises just 19 above the horizon, it's one of the most impressive barred spirals I've observed. The oval core region is aligned northeast-to- southwest and covers a 52" by 21" area. The central bar feature runs nearly east-west over 2'.8 by 0'.9. Of the two dominant spiral arms, the most obvious extends northward from the western end of the bar. This arm is visible over a distance of 3'.2, but long exposure photos and CCD's show this arm extending nearly twice that length. I saw just the subtlest hint of a second arm south of the western half of the bar. The arm off the eastern end of the bar curls southwest for 2'.2; again about half the length of the arm in astroimages. Altogether, this 9.6 magnitude barred spiral covers a 5' by 3' area in the big Dobsonian. Eleven faint stars are seen in the vicinity of NGC 1365, including a 13th magnitude ember along the eastern edge of the northern spiral arm.

Contemporary observations

Auke Slotegraaf

2009 January 27

Sutherland (Huis Lana)

"Bertha" 12-inch f/4.8 Dobsonian (EP: 32mm, 25mm, 10mm, 6.3mm Plossls, 2x Barlow, 32mm Erfle)

Conditions: Clear, dark.

Just over a degree east of the chi Fornacis trio lies NGC 1365. Be prepared. Scanning with 120x (21-arcmin field) delivers an unbelievable sight. The casual Z shape of this amazing galaxy is clear as daylight. And its large. The gracefully curved western-northern arm is not as prominent as the eastern-southern arm. The short straight nebulosity joining them has a very bright central region, triangular in shape, pointing west. An 11th mag star lies to the northwest of this nucleus, nestling inside the curve of the western arm. About six times as far, due east, is a narrow triangle of 12th mag stars. I didn't study or sketch the galaxy any further; it was already sitting very low above the horizon, and one doesn't do such a wonderful object such an injustice. Good heavens. (D: 20090127/28. U355)

2007 April 15

Sutherland (Ouberg Quarry)

11x80 tripod mounted binoculars

Conditions: NELM: fainter than 6.0 at the S.pole

Small (6') round (no particular shape) faint glow, growing only slightly brighter to the middle. In a wide field sprinkled with bright stars, particulary Xi 1-2-3 one degree west. Used Uranometria chart 355 to locate. Sketch made, but very poorly (not reproduced). Size estimated from A=HD 22487 & B=HD 22425, d <= AB.

1997 November 29

1997 November 29/30, Sat/Sun: Jonkershoek, seeing 3, transparency 3, sky darkness 4, lim.mag. at south pole 6.0 (naked eye), 10.7 (binoculars at pole) Strong SE wind. "A delicate round glow, more difficult than NGC 1316, but about the same size with averted vision. Quite low surface brightness, and quite difficult to hold directly."

1997 September 02

1997 Sept 02, Die Boord, 11x80 tripod mounted. Seeing average-good. Not found after careful study. Nearby 1316 and 1291 spotted.

1995

Observing from the 1500 metre plateau of the SAAO observing site in Sutherland, this galaxy is readily seen in 11x80's, requiring some attention at first. It is not clear in which direction it is elongated, appearing as a diffuse patch of starlight. Easy to see once located.

Magda Streicher

(no date)

12-inch f/10 SCT (EP: 2-inch 32mm SW 95x 42' fov; 2-inch 14mm UW 218x 23' fov; 2-inch 8.8mm UW 346x 15' fov)

Large, soft, barred spiral galaxy with a low surface brightness. The galaxy displays a slightly brighter bar north south towards the centre. Flimsy spiral nebulosity spreading outwards in a northern and southern direction. Both arms lessening in brightness towards the edges (218x). The western arm, however, appears better defined with faint dark notches just visible (346x). A faint star is embedded in the northern section.

Richard Ford

2015, February, 22nd

Location:Perdeberg.

Time:8:55pm.

Sky Conditions:The fainter parts of the Milky Way are barely visible.Haziness only visible on the horizon.Atmosphere stable with little interference.

Instrument:12-inch Dobsonian.

This galaxy has a barred-like structure with faint extensions stretching from east to west of this bright galaxy.The galactic nucleus of this galaxy is moderately condensed as faint smudge of light.This galaxy measures 7.1'x 5.4'Chart No.200,NSOG Vol.1.

2011 October, 30th Sunday

Location:Perdeberg.

Instrument:12-inch Dobsonian Reflector Telescope.

Sky Conditions:The fainter parts of the Milky Way are barely visible with the naked eye.

Transparency Of The Sky:Haziness only visible on the horizon.

Seeing:Atmosphere stable with little interference.

Limiting Magnitude:4.9.

NGC 1365

--------

Object Type:Galaxy.

First Impression:This object looks like a galaxy.

Location:Fornax.

Time:12:25am.

Chart Number:No.14(Extract taken out of "Atlas of the Night Sky").

Size:26mm Eyepiece:Field Of View:57'/10= 5.7'.

20mm Eyepiece:Field Of View:50'/8.5= 5.8'.

5.7'+ 5.8'= 11.5'.

11.5'/2= 5.7'.

Size in Arc Minutes:5.7'.

Ratio:1:3.

Major Axis:5.7'.

5.7'/3= 1.9'.

Minor Axis:1.9'.

Galaxy is 5.7'* 1.9'.

Brightness:Magnitude 9.5.

Brightness Profile:The galactic nucleus of this galaxy grows brighter in the center compared to galactic nucleus of this galaxy.

Challenge Rating:Difficult.

Description

-----------

This galaxy is barred-like spiral structure is noticeable with its faint dust lanes where some areas of even brightness is observed close to the nucleus of this galaxy.I have also found areas of uneven brightness around the western arm of this barred-spiral arms of this galaxy.

Tom Bryant

2010 11 5 2:28:53

Observing site: Fall Star Party

Telescope: C-11

[3h 33m 36s, -36 8' 0"] A bright nucleus, surrounded by a large, round, envelope. B: SB.

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