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2010 August 18
Using ESO's Very Large Telescope, European astronomers have for the first time demonstrated that a magnetar – an unusual type of neutron star – was formed from a star with at least 40 times as much mass as the Sun. The result presents great challenges to current theories of how stars evolve, as a star as massive as this was expected to become a black hole, not a magnetar. This now raises a fundamental question: just how massive does a star really have to be to become a black hole?
From previous studies, the astronomers knew that Westerlund 1 was the closest super star cluster known, containing hundreds of very massive stars, some shining with a brilliance of almost one million suns and some two thousand times the diameter of the Sun (as large as the orbit of Saturn).
"If the Sun were located at the heart of this remarkable cluster, our night sky would be full of hundreds of stars as bright as the full Moon," says Ben Ritchie, lead author of the paper reporting these results.
Westerlund 1 is a fantastic stellar zoo, with a diverse and exotic population of stars. The stars in the cluster share one thing: they all have the same age, estimated at between 3.5 and 5 million years, as the cluster was formed in a single star-formation event.
A magnetar is a type of neutron star with an incredibly strong magnetic field – a million billion times stronger than that of the Earth – which is formed when certain stars undergo supernova explosions. The Westerlund 1 cluster hosts one of the few magnetars known in the Milky Way. Thanks to its home in the cluster, the astronomers were able to make the remarkable deduction that this magnetar must have formed from a star at least 40 times as massive as the Sun.
As all the stars in Westerlund 1 have the same age, the star that exploded and left a magnetar remnant must have had a shorter life than the surviving stars in the cluster. "Because the lifespan of a star is directly linked to its mass – the heavier a star, the shorter its life – if we can measure the mass of any one surviving star, we know for sure that the shorter-lived star that became the magnetar must have been even more massive," says co-author and team leader Simon Clark. "This is of great significance since there is no accepted theory for how such extremely magnetic objects are formed."
The astronomers therefore studied the stars that belong to the eclipsing double system W13 in Westerlund 1 using the fact that, in such a system, masses can be directly determined from the motions of the stars.
By comparison with these stars, they found that the star that became the magnetar must have been at least 40 times the mass of the Sun. This proves for the first time that magnetars can evolve from stars so massive we would normally expect them to form black holes. The previous assumption was that stars with initial masses between about 10 and 25 solar masses would form neutron stars and those above 25 solar masses would produce black holes.
"These stars must get rid of more than nine tenths of their mass before exploding as a supernova, or they would otherwise have created a black hole instead," says co-author Ignacio Negueruela. "Such huge mass losses before the explosion present great challenges to current theories of stellar evolution."
"This therefore raises the thorny question of just how massive a star has to be to collapse to form a black hole if stars over 40 times as heavy as our Sun cannot manage this feat," concludes co-author Norbert Langer.
The formation mechanism preferred by the astronomers postulates that the star that became the magnetar – the progenitor – was born with a stellar companion. As both stars evolved they would begin to interact, with energy derived from their orbital motion expended in ejecting the requisite huge quantities of mass from the progenitor star. While no such companion is currently visible at the site of the magnetar, this could be because the supernova that formed the magnetar caused the binary to break apart, ejecting both stars at high velocity from the cluster.
"If this is the case it suggests that binary systems may play a key role in stellar evolution by driving mass loss – the ultimate cosmic 'diet plan' for heavyweight stars, which shifts over 95% of their initial mass," concludes Clark.
The open cluster Westerlund 1 was discovered in 1961 from Australia by Swedish astronomer Bengt Westerlund, who later moved from there to become ESO Director in Chile (1970-74).
The cluster is behind a huge interstellar cloud of gas and dust, which blocks most of its visible light. The dimming factor is more than 100,000, and this is why it has taken so long to uncover the true nature of this particular cluster.
Westerlund 1 is a unique natural laboratory for the study of extreme stellar physics, helping astronomers to find out how the most massive stars in our Milky Way live and die. From their observations, the astronomers conclude that this extreme cluster most probably contains no less than 100,000 times the mass of the Sun, and all of its stars are located within a region less than 6 light-years across. Westerlund 1 thus appears to be the most massive compact young cluster yet identified in the Milky Way galaxy.
All stars so far analyzed in Westerlund 1 have masses at least 30-40 times that of the Sun. Because such stars have a rather short life – astronomically speaking – Westerlund 1 must be very young. The astronomers determine an age somewhere between 3.5 and 5 million years. So, Westerlund 1 is clearly a "newborn" cluster in our galaxy.
The research presented in this ESO Press Release will soon appear in Astronomy and Astrophysics ("A VLT/FLAMES survey for massive binaries in Westerlund 1: II. Dynamical constraints on magnetar progenitor masses from the eclipsing binary W13", by B. Ritchie et al.) and can also be downloaded in PDF format from the ESO website.
2015 March 25 at 14:33
top story: March newsletter of the ASSA Deep-Sky Section, featuring 47 Tuc on the cover. — "Nightfall" (2015 April) is the current newsletter of the Deep-Sky Observing Section of the Astronomical Society of Southern Africa.
2013 March 20 at 18:30
A globular cluster in the realm of the galaxies — A rare gem - a bright globular cluster in the realm of the galaxies.
2013 February 26 at 15:09
The Dark Emu rises, in pursuit of the Magellanic Clouds — The beautiful complex of dark nebulosity along the southern Milky Way appears like an ancient monster, its serpentine neck reaching out as if to gobble up the Magellanic Clouds.
2012 November 19 at 12:00
Massive star forming region in the Small Magellanic Cloud — Dale Liebenberg images NGC 346, a gigantic star forming region in the SMC.
2012 August 22 at 09:44
Flocculent Galaxy in Southern Leo — Dale Liebenberg images the spiral galaxy NGC 3521 in southern Leo.
2012 July 16 at 17:23
Ancient open cluster in Lyra — Anthony Ayiomamitis images the old open cluster NGC 6791.
2012 May 06 at 13:20
Golden Coin Galaxy — Dale Liebenberg images the Golden Coin, NGC 4945 in Centaurus.
2012 March 03 at 08:00
NGC 2467 in Puppis — Dale Liebenberg images NGC 2467 in Puppis.
2011 December 13 at 10:50
Last but not least - Messier 103 — Anthony Ayiomamitis images Messier 103 in Cassiopeia.
2011 October 24 at 13:40
The Arkenstone of Thrain — Dale Liebenberg images Messier 22, the "Arkenstone of Thrain" according to Burnham.
2011 January 31 at 09:53 SAST
ConCards available — A handy set of beginner's star charts, "Constellation Cards" are now available for free download.
2010 November 17 13:04 SAST
Deep sky celebrations — Three deep sky observers of yore have birthdays this week: William Herschel (1738), the Fourth Earl of Rosse, and Stephane Javelle.
2010 November 03 at 17:11 SAST
Necklace Nebula featured on APOD — The recently-discovered planetary nebula nicknamed the Necklace Nebula, recently featured on APOD.
2010 October 21 12:07 SAST
Methuselah Nebula featured on APOD — The old bipolar planetary nebula MWP1, a.k.a. Methuselah Nebula, is today's APOD.
2010 October 02 18:32 SAST
New deepsky book from CUP — Deep sky author Wolfgang Steinicke's latest book, "Observing and Cataloguing Nebulae and Star Clusters: From Herschel to Dreyer's New General Catalogue", has just been published by Cambridge University Press.
2010 September 23 00:39 SAST
NGC 1365 in infrared (ESO VLT) — The bright barred spiral galaxy NGC 1365 in Fornax has been imaged in the infrared with the ESO VLT telescope.
2010 September 16 19:41 SAST
New HST image of eta Carinae Nebula — New observations, combined with images made in 2005, show beautiful detail in part of the extensive eta Carinae Nebula.
2010 September 16 00:27 SAST
First planetary in open cluster found — A team of astronomers from Australia, the UK, the USA and France have discovered the first planetary nebula known to be associated with a galactic open cluster.
2010 September 09 00:44 SAST
NGC 300 in Sculptor imaged at ESO — The bright spiral galaxy NGC 300 has been imaged with the MPG/ESO 2.2-meter telescope at the La Silla Observatory in Chile.
2010 September 01 03:13 SAST
Superwind galaxy NGC 4666 — A remarkable galaxy with very vigorous star formation has been newly imaged on the MPG/ESO 2.2-meter telescope at the La Silla Observatory in Chile.
Tuesday, 2017 April 25, 20:20
All earlier news items can be browsed in the archives.
I resolved to attempt the completion of a survey of the whole surface of the heavens, and for this purpose to transport into the other hemisphere the same instrument which had been employed in this, so as to give a unity to the results of both portions of the survey and to render them comparable with each other.
During the beta-release I will be on Skype ("psychohistorian") so you can complain and make bug reports in person.
DOCdb is still in beta-release.
Known issues, feature requests, and updates on bug fixes, are here:
Special thanks to our volunteers:
• Magda Streicher
• Chris de Coning
DOCdb is still in beta-release.
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